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Presidential Election History from 1789 to 2012


The presidential candidates and their political parties, number of electoral and popular votes received, and vice presidential candidates for every election from 1789 to 2012 are listed below, in reverse chronological order. Every candidate that received either more than 100,000 popular votes or at least one electoral vote has been included.

Please note that there is no official federal record of popular votes cast in presidential elections because the information is compiled by each state, so the totals vary across different sources. ProCon.org used data provided by the National Archives and Records Administration when possible, and supplemented the missing information with data from Dave Leip's Atlas of US Presidential Elections. The data were corroborated with other sources including the New York Times, CNN, and PresidentElect.org. While the sites had discrepencies in the numbers provided for the popular vote totals, all reported totals were within 1% of each other.

Don't miss our Election History "Did You Know?" at the bottom of the page.

 

2012 2008 2004 2000 1996 1992 1988 1984 1980 1976 1972 1968 1964 1960 1956 1952 1948 1944 1940
1936 1932 1928 1924 1920 1916 1912 1908 1904 1900 1896 1892 1888 1884 1880 1876 1872 1868 1864
1860 1856 1852 1848 1844 1840 1836 1832 1828 1824 1820 1816 1812 1808 1804 1800 1796 1792 1789

 

Year Presidential Candidates
(winner in bold)
Political Parties* Electoral Votes** Popular Votes VP Candidates
(winner in bold)
2012 Barack Obama (44th Pres.)
Mitt Romney
Gary Johnson
Jill Stein
Virgil Goode
Democratic
Republican
Libertarian
Green
Constitution
332
206
0
0
0
65,446,032
60,589,084
1,273,168
464,510
122,338
Joe Biden
Paul Ryan
James P. Gray
Cheri Honkala
Jim Clymer

2008 Barack Obama (44th Pres.)
John McCain
Ralph Nader
Bob Barr
Chuck Baldwin
Cynthia McKinney
Democratic
Republican
Independent
Libertarian
Constitution
Green
364
163
0
0
0
0
65,445,394
57,446,223
679,465
500,045
180,864
146,559
Joe Biden
Sarah Palin
Matt Gonzalez
Wayne Root
Darrell Castle
Rosa Clemente
Related Links: Detailed 2008 election results

2004
George W. Bush (43rd)
John Kerry
Ralph Nader
Michael Badnarik
Michael Peroutka
David Cobb
Republican
Democratic
Independent
Libertarian
Constitution
Green
286
251*
0
0
0
0
62,040,610
59,028,439
463,655
397,265
144,499
119,859
Dick Cheney
John Edwards
Peter Camejo
Richard Campagna
Charles Baldwin
Pat LaMarche

*One elector from Minnesota cast a vote for John Edwards.

2000
George W. Bush (43rd)
Al Gore
Ralph Nader
Pat Buchanan
Harry Browne
Republican
Democratic
Green
Reform
Libertarian
271
266*
0
0
0
50,456,002
50,999,897**
2,882,955
448,895
384,431
Dick Cheney
Joe Lieberman
Winona LaDuke
Ezola B. Foster
Art Olivier

*One elector from the District of Columbia left her ballot blank to protest the city's lack of representation in Congress.

**Although Gore received more popular votes, Bush received more electoral votes and therefore won the presidency.

1996
Bill Clinton (42nd)
Bob Dole
Ross Perot
Ralph Nader
Harry Browne
Howard Phillips
Democratic
Republican
Reform
Green
Libertarian
Taxpayers
379
159
0
0
0
0
45,590,703
37,816,307
7,866,284
685,128
485,798
184,820
Al Gore
Jack Kemp
Pat Choate
Winona LaDuke
Jo Jorgensen
Herbert Titus

1992
Bill Clinton (42nd)
George H.W. Bush
Ross Perot
Andre Marrou
James "Bo" Gritz
Democratic
Republican
Independent
Libertarian
Populist
370
168
0
0
0
44,909,326
39,103,882
19,741,657
291,627
107,014
Al Gore
Dan Quayle
James Stockdale
Nancy Lord
Cy Minett

Top
1988
George H.W. Bush (41st)
Michael Dukakis
Lloyd Bentsen*
Ron Paul
Lenora Fulani
Republican
Democratic
Libertarian
New Alliance
Democratic
426
111
1
0
0
48,886,597
41,809,476
none*
431,750
217,221
Dan Quayle
Lloyd M. Bentsen
Michael S. Dukakis*
Andre V. Marrou
Joyce Dattner

*One elector voted for Bentsen as President and Dukakis as Vice President as a statement against the US Electoral College.

1984
Ronald Reagan (40th)
Walter Mondale
David Bergland
Republican
Democratic
Libertarian
525
13
0
54,455,075
37,577,185
228,111
George H.W. Bush
Geraldine Ferraro
Jim Lewis

1980
Ronald Reagan (40th)
Jimmy Carter
John Anderson
Edward Clark
Barry Commoner
Republican
Democratic
Independent
Libertarian
Citizens
489
49
0
0
0
43,904,153
35,483,883
5,719,437
920,049
232,538
George H.W. Bush
Walter Mondale
Patrick Lucey
David Koch
LaDonna Harris

1976
Jimmy Carter (39th)
Gerald R. Ford
Ronald Reagan*
Eugene J. McCarthy
Roger MacBride
Lester Maddox
Thomas J. Anderson
Democratic
Republican
Republican
Independent
Libertarian
Amer.-Independent
American
297
240
1
0
0
0
0
40,830,763
39,147,793
none*
756,631
172,553
170,274
158,271
Walter Mondale
Bob Dole
Bob Dole
None
David Bergland
William Dyke
Rufus Shackelford

*Reagan was not in the race; a sole elector from Washington gave him a vote.


Gerald Ford* (38th)
Republican
none
none
Nelson Rockefeller*

*Nixon resigned as President Aug. 9, 1974. He was succeeded by Gerald Ford.

**Rockefeller became Vice President under the provisions of the 25th Amendment: "Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress."

Top
1972
Richard Nixon (37th)
George McGovern
John Hospers
John Schmitz
Republican
Democratic
Libertarian
American
520
17
1
0
47,169,911
29,170,383
3,674
1,100,868
Spiro Agnew*
Sargent Shriver
Theodora Nathan
Thomas J. Anderson

*Spiro Agnew resigned as Vice President Oct. 10, 1973. He was succeeded by Gerald Ford.

1968
Richard Nixon (37th)
Hubert Humphrey
George Wallace
Republican
Democratic
American Independent
301
191
46
31,785,480
31,275,166
9,906,473
Spiro Agnew
Edmund Muskie
Curtis LeMay

1964
Lyndon Johnson (36th)
Barry Goldwater
Democratic
Republican
486
52
43,129,566
27,178,188
Hubert Humphrey
William Miller

1960
John F. Kennedy* (35th)
Richard Nixon
Harry F. Byrd
Democratic
Republican
Independent
303
219
15
34,226,731
34,108,157
none
Lyndon Johnson
Henry Lodge
Strom Thurmond

*Kennedy was assassinated Nov. 22, 1963. He was succeeded by Lyndon Johnson, who became the 36th President of the United States.

1956
Dwight Eisenhower (34th)
Adlai Stevenson
Walter Jones
T. Coleman Andrews
Republican
Democratic
Democratic
State's Rights
457
73
1
0
35,590,472
26,022,752
none
107,929
Richard Nixon
Estes Kefauver
Herman Talmadge
Thomas Werdel

Top
1952
Dwight Eisenhower (34th)
Adlai Stevenson
Vincent Hallinan
Republican
Democratic
Progressive
442
89
0
33,936,234
27,314,992
140,746
Richard Nixon
John Sparkman
Charlotta Bass

1948
Harry S. Truman (33rd)
Thomas Dewey
Strom Thurmond
Henry Wallace
Norman Thomas
Claude A. Watson
Democratic
Republican
State's Rights
Progressive
Socialist
Prohibition
303
189
39
0
0
0
24,179,345
21,991,291
1,169,021
1,157,172
139,569
103,708
Alben Barkley
Earl Warren
Fielding Wright
Glen Taylor
Tucker Smith
Dale Learn

1944
Franklin D. Roosevelt* (32nd)
Thomas Dewey
Democratic
Republican
432
99
25,612,610
22,117,617
Harry Truman
John Bricker

*Roosevelt died of a cerebral hemorrhage Apr. 12, 1945. He was succeeded by Harry Truman, who became the 33rd President of the United States.

1940
Franklin D. Roosevelt (32nd)
Wendell Willkie
Norman Thomas
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
449
82
0
27,313,041
22,348,480
116,599
Henry Wallace
Charles McNary
Maynard Krueger

1936
Franklin D. Roosevelt (32nd)
Alfred Landon
William Lemke
Norman Thomas
Democratic
Republican
Union
Socialist
523
8
0
0
27,757,333
16,684,231
892,378
187,910
John Garner
Frank Knox
Thomas O'Brian
George Nelson

Top
1932
Franklin D. Roosevelt (32nd)
Herbert C. Hoover
Norman Thomas
William Foster
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
Communist
472
59
0
0
22,829,501
15,760,684
884,781
103,307
John Garner
Charles Curtis
James Maurer
James Ford

1928
Herbert C. Hoover (31st)
Alfred E. Smith
Norman Thomas
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
444
87
0
21,437,277
15,007,698
267,478
Charles Curtis
Joseph Robinson
James Maurer

1924
Calvin Coolidge (30th)
John Davis
Robert LaFollette
Republican
Democratic
Progressive
382
136
13
15,719,921
8,386,704
4,822,856
Charles Dawes
Charles Bryan
Burton Wheeler

1920
Warren G. Harding* (29th)
James Cox
Eugene Debs
Parley Christiansen
Aaron Watkins
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
Farmer-Labor
Prohibition
404
127
0
0
0
16,153,115
9,133,092
913,693
265,398
188,787
Calvin Coolidge
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Seymour Stedman
Maximilian Hayes
David Colvin

*Harding died of a heart attack on Aug. 12, 1923. He was succeeded by Calvin Coolidge, who became the 30th President of the United States.

1916
Woodrow Wilson (28th)
Charles Hughes
Allan Benson
James Hanly
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
Prohibition
277
254
0
0
9,126,300
8,546,789
590,524
221,302
Thomas Marshall
Charles Fairbanks
George Kirkpatrick
Ira Landrith

Top
1912
Woodrow Wilson (28th)
Theodore Roosevelt
William Taft
Eugene Debs
Eugene Chafin
Democratic
Progressive
Republican
Socialist
Prohibition
435
88
8
0
0
6,293,152
4,119,207
3,483,922
901,551
208,156
Thomas Marshall
Hiram Johnson
Nicholas Butler
Emil Seidel
Aaron Watkins

1908
William Taft (27th)
William Bryan
Eugene Debs
Eugene Chafin
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
Prohibition
321
162
0
0
7,676,258
6,406,801
420,852
254,087
James Sherman
John Kern
Benjamin Hanford
Aaron Watkins

1904
Theodore Roosevelt (26th)
Alton Parker
Eugene Debs
Silas Swallow
Thomas Watson
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
Prohibition
Populist
336
140
0
0
0
7,626,593
5,082,898
402,810
259,103
114,062
Charles Fairbanks
Henry Davis
Benjamin Hanford
George Carroll
Thomas Tibbles

1900
William McKinley (25th)

William Bryan
John Woolley
Republican

Democratic
Prohibition

292

155
0
7,218,039

6,358,345
210,867
Theodore Roosevelt
Adlai Stevenson
Henry Metcalf

*McKinley was shot Sep. 6, 1901 and died Sep. 14, 1901. He was succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt, who became the 26th President of the United States.

1896
William McKinley (25th)
William Bryan

John Palmer
Joshua Levering
Republican
Democratic/Populist

National Democrat
Prohibition
271
176

0
0
7,108,480
6,511,495

133,537
124,896
Garret Hobart
Arthur Sewall (149) /
Thomas Watson (27)
Simon Buckner
Hale Johnson

Top
1892
Grover Cleveland (24th)*
Benjamin Harrison
James Baird Weaver
John Bidwell
Democratic
Republican
Populist
Prohibition
277
145
22
0
5,551,883
5,179,244
1,027,329
270,889
Adlai Stevenson
Whitelaw Reid
James Field
James Cranfill

1888
Benjamin Harrison (23rd)
Grover Cleveland
Clinton Fisk
Alson Streeter
Republican
Democratic
Prohibition
Union Labor
233
168
0
0
5,443,892
5,534,488
250,017
149,115
Levi Morton
Allen Thurman
John Brooks
Charles Cunningham

1884
Grover Cleveland (22nd)
James G. Blaine
John St. John
Benjamin Butler
Democratic
Republican
Prohibition
Greenback
219
182
0
0
4,874,621
4,848,936
150,890
134,294
Thomas Hendricks
John Logan
William Daniel
Absolom West


Chester Arthur* (21st)
Republican
none
none
none**

*Garfield was shot July 2, 1881 and died Sep. 19, 1881. He was succeeded by Chester Arthur.

**There was no formal process for appointing a replacement Vice President until 1967, when the 25th Amendment was ratified.

1880
James Garfield (20th)
Winfield S. Hancock
James Baird Weaver
Republican
Democratic
Greenback
214
155
0
4,446,158
4,444,260
306,135
Chester Arthur
William English
Benjamin Chambers

Top
1876
Rutherford B. Hayes (19th)
Samuel Tilden
Republican
Democratic
185
184
4,034,311
4,288,546
William Wheeler
Thomas Hendricks

1872
Ulysses S. Grant (18th)
Horace Greeley
B. Gratz Brown
Thomas Hendricks
Charles Jenkins
David Davis
Republican
Democratic
Democratic
Democratic
Democratic
Liberal Republican
286
0
18
42
2
1
3,598,235
2,834,761
none
none
none
none
Henry Wilson
B. Gratz Brown
none
none
none
none

1868
Ulysses S. Grant (18th)
Horatio Seymour
Republican
Democratic
214
80
3,013,650
2,708,744
Schuyler Colfax
Francis Blair, Jr.


Andrew Johnson* (17th)
Republican
none
none
none**

*Lincoln was assassinated on Apr. 14, 1865. He was succeeded by Andrew Johnson.

**There was no formal process for appointing a replacement Vice President until 1967, when the 25th Amendment was ratified.

1864
Abraham Lincoln (16th)
George B. McClellan
Republican
Democratic
212
21
2,218,388
1,812,807
Andrew Johnson
George Pendleton

Top
1860
Abraham Lincoln (16th)
John C. Breckinridge
John Bell
Stephen Douglas
Republican
Southern Democrat
Constitutional Union
Democratic
180
72
39
12
1,865,908
848,019
590,946
1,381,944
Hannibal Hamlin
Joseph Lane
Edward Everett
Herschel Johnson

1856
James Buchanan (15th)
John Frémont
Millard Fillmore
Democratic
Republican
Whig-American
174
114
8
1,836,072
1,342,345
872,703
John Breckenridge
William Dayton
Andrew Donelson

1852
Franklin Pierce (14th)
Winfield Scott
John Hale
Democratic
Whig
Free Soil
254
42
0
1,607,510
1,386,942
155,799
William King
William Graham
George Julian


Millard Fillmore* (13th)
Whig
none
none
none**

*Taylor died July 9, 1850 in Washington DC; he became sick after eating cherries and milk at a July 4 celebration. He was succeeded by Millard Fillmore.

**There was no formal process for appointing a replacement Vice President until 1967, when the 25th Amendment was ratified.

1848
Zachary Taylor (12th)
Lewis Cass
Martin Van Buren
Whig
Democratic
Free Soil
163
127
0
1,361,393
1,223,460
291,47
Millard Fillmore
William O. Butler
Charles F. Adams

Top
1844
James K. Polk (11th)
Henry Clay
Democratic
Whig
170
105
1,339,494
1,300,004
George M. Dallas
Theodore Frelinghuysen


John Tyler* (10th)
Whig
none
none
none**

*Harrison died of pneumonia on Apr. 4, 1841. He was succeeded by John Tyler, who became the first Vice President to be elevated to the office of President by the death of his predecessor.

**There was no formal process for appointing a replacement Vice President until 1967, when the 25th Amendment was ratified.

1840
William Henry Harrison (9th)
Martin Van Buren
Whig
Democratic
234
60
1,275,390
1,128,854
John Tyler (234)*
Richard Johnson (48)
L. W. Tazewell (11)
James K. Polk (1)

*From 1800 to 1840, candidates for President and Vice President ran on separate tickets, resulting in different electoral votes for each office. The number of electoral votes received by each VP candidate is noted in parentheses.

1836
Martin Van Buren (8th)

William H. Harrison
Hugh L. White
Daniel Webster
William P. Mangum
Democratic

Whig
Whig
Whig
Whig
170

73
26
14
11
764,176

550,816
146,107
41,201
0
Richard Johnson (147)
Francis Granger (77)
John Tyler (47)
William Smith (23)

1832
Andrew Jackson (7th)

Henry Clay
John Floyd
William Wirt
Democratic

Nat'l Republican
Ind. Democrat
Anti-Masonic
219

49
11
7
701,780

484,205
0
99,817
Martin Van Buren (189)
John Sergeant (49)
William Wilkens (30)
Henry Lee (30)
Amos Ellmaker

Top
1828
Andrew Jackson (7th)
John Quincy Adams
Democratic
Nat'l Republican
178
83
642,553
500,897
John Calhoun (171)
Richard Rush (83)
William Smith (7)

1824
John Quincy Adams (6th)
Andrew Jackson
William H. Crawford
Henry Clay
Dem.-Rep.
Dem.-Rep.
Dem.-Rep.
Dem.-Rep.
84*
91
41
37
113,122*
151,271
41,032
47,545
John Calhoun (182)
Nathan Sanford (30)
Nathaniel Macon (24)
Andrew Jackson (13)
Martin Van Buren (9)
Henry Clay (2)

*Adams received fewer electoral votes and fewer popular votes than Jackson, but the House of Representatives decided the election because Jackson failed to earn a majority of electoral votes.

1820
James Monroe (5th)
John Quincy Adams
Dem.-Rep.
Republican
231
1
No record*
Daniel Tompkins (218)
Richard Stockton (8)
Daniel Rodney (4)
Robert G. Harper (1)
Richard Rush (1)

*No complete record exists for the popular vote in 1820 or any previous election. A limited number of states held a popular vote to determine electors up to this point.

1816
James Monroe (5th)
Rufus King
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
183
34
No record
Daniel Tompkins (183)
John E. Howard (22)
James Ross (5)
John Marshall (4)
Robert G. Harper (3)

1812
James Madison (4th)
De Witt Clinton
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
128
89
No record
Elbridge Gerry (131)
Jared Ingersoll (86)

Top
1808
James Madison (4th)
Charles C. Pinckney
George Clinton
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
122
47
6
No record
George Clinton (113)
Rufus King (47)
John Langdon (9)
James Monroe (3)
James Madison (3)

1804
Thomas Jefferson (3rd)
Charles C. Pinckney
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
162
14
No record
George Clinton (162)
Rufus King (14)

1800
Thomas Jefferson (3rd)
Aaron Burr
John Adams
Charles C. Pinckney
John Jay
Dem.-Rep.
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Federalist
Federalist
73*
73
65
64
1
No record
Aaron Burr**

*The tie between Jefferson and Burr was broken by the House of Representatives.

**1800 was the last election before the ratification of the 12th Amendment, which changed the method by which the Vice President was chosen. Prior to 1804, the presidential candidate with the second highest number of electoral votes was appointed as Vice President.

1796
John Adams (2nd)
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Pinckney
Aaron Burr
Samuel Adams
O. Ellsworth
George Clinton
John Jay
James Iredell
S. Johnston
George Washington
John Henry
Charles C. Pinckney
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Federalist
Independent
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Federalist
71
68
59
30
15
11
7
5
3
2
2
2
1
No record
Thomas Jefferson

1792
George Washington (1st)
John Adams
George Clinton
Thomas Jefferson
Aaron Burr
Federalist
Federalist
Anti-Federalist
Anti-Federalist
Anti-Federalist
none
132
77
50
4
1
No record
John Adams

1789
George Washington (1st)
John Adams
John Jay
Robert H. Harrison
John Rutledge
John Hancock
George Clinton
Samuel Huntington
John Milton
James Armstrong
Benjamin Lincoln
Edward Telfair
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
69
34
9
6
6
4
3
2
2
1
1
1
No record
John Adams

*Visit our page on Political Parties for information on current and historical US political parties.
**The number of electoral votes apportioned to each State corresponds to the number of US Representatives and Senators in each State. The allotment of electoral votes changes every 10 years depending on the results of the US Census. Visit our page on How to Become the US President for more information on the electoral college.


Top

Did You Know?

Little Known Facts about Presidential Elections:

  1. The first presidential election took place in 1789. There have been 55 presidential elections and 43 Presidents in US history.

  2. In the election of 1800, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr both received 73 electoral votes. Since neither candidate had a majority, the election was turned over to the House of Representatives. Alexander Hamilton intervened in support of Jefferson to break a deadlock in the House of Representatives. This action contributed to the famous duel between Burr and Hamilton that took place four years later, in which Hamilton was killed.

  3. A presidential candidate has won the election despite losing the popular vote four times in US history: 1824, 1876, 1888, and 2000. In 1824, John Quincy Adams lost both the popular and the electoral vote, but the House of Representatives decided the outcome of the election because his opponent failed to secure a majority of electoral votes.

  4. The shortest presidency in the history of the office was served by William Henry Harrison, who died of pneumonia on Apr. 4, 1841, just 31 days into his term.

  5. Grover Cleveland was elected as the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, making him the only President to serve two nonconsecutive terms.

  6. Incumbents have run in 30 of the 55 presidential elections in US history. The incumbent won 20 times and lost 10 times.

  7. Four of the re-elected incumbents served their first terms without being elected because their predecessors died in office (Lyndon Johnson, Harry S. Truman, Calvin Coolidge, and Theodore Roosevelt).

  8. The Constitution did not originally contain term limits. The 22nd Amendment, ratified in 1951, restricted presidents to a maximum of two terms. Four-time president Franklin D. Roosevelt was the only candidate to be elected more than twice (1932, 1936, 1940, 1944).

  9. Eight US Presidents have died while in office. Four were assassinated (John F. Kennedy, William McKinley, James Garfield, and Abraham Lincoln) and four died of natural causes (Franklin D. Roosevelt, Warren G. Harding, Zachary Taylor, and William Henry Harrison).

  10. 14 Vice Presidents have become President; 5 were elected, and 8 succeeded Presidents that died in office. Gerald Ford was the only person to serve as both President and Vice President without being elected to either office.

  11. There have been 538 electoral votes in each presidential election since 1960. A candidate must win a majority of those votes (270) to win the election.